Local Government Texas has counties, a number which has not changed since when Loving County was organized. Loving County had a population. GOVERNMENT. When Texas was annexed by the United States in , Texas government had been shaped largely within the. The government of Texas operates under the Constitution of Texas and consists of a unitary democratic state government operating under a presidential system Executive · Legislature · Judiciary · Local government. County Govt Structure County Services Texas Courthouses Resources Related Sites. Regular sessions convene on the second Tuesday of January in odd-numbered years, but the governor may call special sessions. The Speaker of the House presides over the House, and the Lieutenant Governor presides over the Senate. More than 80 percent of the state's population lives in cities and towns meeting the U. Click below and let us know how we can help you. Views Read Edit View history. Modified on May 30, Despite rapid population growth for the next several decades, the state remained sparsely populated. They include such departments as public health and human services, personnel and budget, and in some counties, public transportation and emergency medical services. Each Texas county has four precinct commissioners and a county judge who serve on this court. Retirement benefits for state employees and teachers improved after a constitutional amendment was ratified. Font Size A A A. Welfare became the third-largest state expenditure, behind only education and highways. Texas has always ranked low on state spending, and in was fiftieth among the states as measured by per capita expenditures. Texas State Historical Association TSHA. The terms of those officials are also four years. During the s large regional river authorities also special districts were set up by statute; among the best known is the Lower Colorado River Authority. When Texas constitutional revision was on the agenda in , the legislature directed the council to study the constitution and make recommendations, with the help of a citizens' group.